Rabu, 14 September 2011
Limited field of vision
As first step in thefitering prosess, an executive will be exposed to only a subset of all potential stimuli. Each decision maker has a limited and specific “focus of attenion.” Executive vary widely in how much they scan, as well as in their use in different source for learning about external event and trends. Moreover, top executive may not even be fully abreast of events and conditions in organizations.
Further filtering occurs because an executive selectively perceives only a portion of the stimuli within his or her field of vision.te same filteering process may occurs when the eexecutive sits through a long meeting of presentations by subordinates or has a conversation with supplier. Not al of the information within he execuive’s field of vision will register equally. Some will be vivid, meaningful, and engaging; some will silde into te executive’s subconscious; and some will escape the executive’s attention entirely.
As a third step in the sequential filtering process, the executive interprets or ataches meaning stimuli. This step, directly or indirectly, has been the objec of most research on executve preception. Managers hae been studid for wherher they interpret certain stimuli os opportunites or as threats for how they categorize or group stimuli, for how they use available stimuli to draw conclution or inference and other interpretive process.
For instance, if an executive compreherends, and is highly engaged by, the information coming from a specific source, he is like to rely even more on that source in the future,in such a case, selectiveerception affects field of vision. Ther iterative links in this filtering process can be anticipated as well.
Executive orientation: an overview
Two major classes of personal characteristics constitute an executive “orientation.” First are psichological properties, such as values, cognitive models, and other other personality.these characteristic provide a basis from which the exececutive filters and intrpret stimuli, and the dispose the exececutive toward certain choice. Second set of characteristics that contribute to an executive’s orientation are those observable dimenssion of the person’s experience. Such variable functional background, company tenure, and formal education has been prominent in studies of senior executives.
top manager vary in what they want-for themselves, their organizations, their employee and society. That is, executives vary in their values, and they actaccordingly. In fact, value may greatly determine other executive psychological characteristics.most theorists allow for both personal and social value, personal value are conceptions of what the individual aspires to. Social value have to do with what the person finds desirable in other or in broader social system. Additionally, value can be either instrumental or terminal, dealing either with means or ends.
Six avenues of inquiry would seem perticularly important and pormising
1. We nee much more examination of how executive value are shaped.
2. Is the need to study executive value from the prespective of agency theory.
3. There is a need for greater understanding of the links between values and cognition.
4. Researchers need to examine how executive value and specific situations interact to affect choice.
5. There is need to study the links between executive value and corporate goals setting.
6. Reseachers need to study he board associations between executive value and organizational characteristics.
There is three element in cognitive model. The three element are cognitive content, or what the executive knows; cognitive structure, or how an executive’s knowadge and bealifs are arranged in his mind; cognitive style, or how the executive’s mind work.
Cognitive content at most basic level, an executive’s model consists of wahat he know, assumes, and bealive. Consider the array of items that executives can possibly carry in their head,creating a fondation for more elaborate information processing and strategic choice. Executive’s cognitive structure also consist ofyriad inferences, gaiding the person from one obsevation to another.executive could draw interpersonal influences. Cognitive style refer to how a person’s mind work, how he gather and proces the information.
Three specific streams of research on executive, pesonality have been particularly proounced, and fail to single them out for attention would be glaring omission. Thes areas of reseach deal with executive charisma, locus of control and positive selfregard.
Posted by akmal putra saniba