Selasa, 17 Januari 2012

Leadership Style case at KOPMA UNAND

Based on current demands of such rapid change, The cooperative movement is expected to contribute and a real role in supporting the realization of the order and the new paradigm of economic development in the current era of regional autonomy, since, as mandated in an effort to improve the living standard of people's welfare (Penjelasan UU No. 22 / 1999 Pasal 43 huruf e), "Cooperatives are the embodiment of the ideal concept of economic democracy, which must be done together through the facilitation and development of Cooperatives, Small and Medium Enterprises which includes the capital, marketing, technology development, production, processing, and coaching and development of human resources. "

To empower cooperatives in order to meet the challenges and exploit opportunities that exist as a result of the crisis, an approach that can be done should be consistent with the mandate and limitations that exist in the regulations and legislation in force, the cooperative built and built himself.
Cooperative approach is built, there is a commitment and attention from the government and society that allow the cooperative to grow and develop while the cooperatives to establish itself, it means that there must be commitment, participation and proactive efforts of the members, managers and administrators cooperatives themselves to develop its potentials and resources to participate and overcome the crisis, which, among other efforts to enhance national food security.
Andalas University Students' Cooperative (Kopma Unand) was established on 18 agusutus 1982. Officially incorporated in 1984 with a number 1449/BH-XVII/1984 based SK West Sumatra Regional Office of the Ministry of Cooperatives on February 23, 1984. The purpose of Kopma Unand them is to improve the welfare of members, coaching members of the cadres who have the entrepreneurial spirit, and create a professional cadre of co-operative and knowledgeable as a driver of national economic development.
Unand was the only student organization operating in the field of entrepreneurship. In addition to functioning as a cooperative, Kopma Unand also a practice area for students to study entrepreneurship and organize. So many skills gained members joined in Kopma Unand.
During run their activities Kopma Unand has gone through many kinds of joy and sorrow. Starting from the new order era to the present at the time of the Reformation. Kopma Unand been awarded as the best student cooperative national level in 1999, which merupaka result of a long journey from the year 1982. Kopma Unand succeeded in proving that this institution is one of the institutions that contribute to national economic development.

Name of Organization
The name of the organization is Andalas University Students' Cooperative hereinafter abbreviated with Kopma Unand.
Address the Organization
The building headquarter Center Student activities (PKM) Second Floor Andalas University, Padang.
 Line of Business
Line of business is being run by Kopma Unand:
Mini Mart Cafe
Stores Stationery and Office
Copy of
Merchandise and Accessories
of Unand
Booking shirt, jacket and other clothing in accordance with customer orders.
Equipment Rental Bazar Campus Unand

             Certificate of Incorporation
Legal Basis The business activities Kopma Unand implementation are:
The decree clod Office of the Ministry of Cooperatives of West Sumatra NO: 001/KPTS/BH/KWK3/II/1984
Agency Law No: 1449/BH-XVII/1984 dated February 23, 1984

            Platform and Principles
Kopma Unand based on Pancasila and 1945 Constitution
Kopma Unand based on the principle of family and economic democracy.

            Vision Organization
"Improving the welfare of members and the community by building and developing the potential and the organizational capacity and economic development and entrepreneurship and nurture students who love alma mater."

            Mission of the Organization
Improve knowledge and skills of members in terms of organizational and entrepreneurial.
Increase the active participation of members in various activities oraganisasi.
cultivate a sense of kekelurgaan, togetherness and solidarity among members of cooperatives.
Increase appreciation in the field of cooperative members.
Fostering a member of integrity, honest, ethical, noble, and the fear of God Almighty.

Organizational Culture
1. Priority to members Kopma Unand
- Work effectively and efficiently
2. integrity
- Hold fast to integrity, honesty, and ethical values ​​in every action.
3. Mutual trust and mutual respect
- Mutual respect and trust as well as providing a positive openly.
- Working in a healthy organizational environment and conducive.
4. Leadership and empowerment of Human Resources
- Apply the leadership that is open and can be a role model.
- Foster a professional culture through empowerment of staff in all sections.
- Provide training and ongoing coaching and rewards for good performance.
5. Teamwork
- Appreciate the teamwork in achieving goals.
- Continuous improvement in all sections.
- Continuously follow developments in technology and other resources.
Cooperative is an organization that is run based on the principles of democracy and the family. Therefore, cooperative management should refer to the principle of which is owned by cooperatives and cooperative principles. Leaders have to lead the members of the democratic style. Although good leaders use all three styles (authocratic, democcratic and delegative style), with one of them normally dominant. in cooperative that is democratic style. bad leaders tend to stick with one style.

In the management after the process of planning, organizing and staffing the section and the specific tasks performed, it does not automatically that people will work as planned to achieve its intended purpose. In order for people within an organization can work and do a good job they should be driven, driven, motivated, directed, and given orders by way of a good method. In this process, called actuating.
In the process of actuating including behavioral science into management was viewed as an art very much depends on one's ability as a leader to influence subordinates. Furthermore, a person's ability to influence subordinates is called Leadership.
I.                    Definition of Leadership
Katz and Kahn (1978) defines leadership as an influence much more than directing the usual routine and mechanistic in an organization. In this definition emphasized that leadership is a person's ability to influence others or subordinates to be submissive and willing to obey what he wanted.
Pearce et al. (1989), that the definition of leadership is a process of influencing others to achieve goals set in an organization. People who have the ability and authority is the leader (leader).
Meanwhile, according to Kartini, Leadership is a matter of relationship and influence between leader and follower, leadership is emerging and developing as a result of the automatic interaction between the individual leader and the follower.
Leader's ability to influence others can be sourced from the power:
1.       Legitimacy, which is the attribute of individuals who occupy certain positions or positions formally.
2.       Charisma, the inherent characteristics of a person's personality and consistency in utter and act, and
3.       The behavior (behavioral) that can be studied and developed based on abilities, work style and look at the situation faced by a leader.
In the conception of leadership in the category of behavior is exactly what we need to learn in more depth and will be very useful in developing the abilities of a person's behavior to become effective leaders in accordance with our current position and role.
II.                  Leadership effectiveness
Leadership effectiveness can be measured by how far the effects on subordinates or followers. There are three indicators that can be used as a measure of the effectiveness of leadership, they are:
1.       Commitment, is the most effective degree of influence which the subordinate will do and perform tasks or commands with a sense of sincere and heartfelt. In view of the theory of MC Gregor such conditions are suitable in theory Y.
For example, if a student comes to college with a full awareness of where to study not because of fear of being absent, this is an ideal condition that is expected by lecturers who in this role as a leader in the classroom.
2.       Compliance, is the effect arising from a subordinate who will execute the command because of fear of punishment or sanctions if it does not carry out the task. These conditions included in the theory of x of MC Gregor.
The second thing is in the theory of MC Gregor is a general tendency of humans to lazy, relax and work that tends to be supervised or directed.
3.       The resistance is a failure of leadership in which subordinates did not dare to refuse orders or carry out tasks assigned by the leader.
Effectiveness of leadership with an indication of the commitment, compliance and denial is closely related to the effectiveness of the achievement of organizational goals. Leaders who are able to create commitment and adherence or at least should be able also to motivate and mobilize subordinates in achieving objectives with high achievement.
In an organization, the degree of effectiveness of leadership will be influenced by various factors:
1.       Leadership Style
Style of leadership is the means used by leaders in influencing followers. Fiedler formulated two styles of leadership Orientation Task and Orientation Man. Meanwhile, other experts say the four styles of leadership that is directive, participative, Supportive, and results orientation.
2.       Working condition
Working condition facing both leaders and subordinates also determine the success of the leader. Included in this variable, among others, the structure of the task clear or not clear, the relationship between leader and follower a good or not good and strong leader position power or weak
3.       The amount and quality of Subordinates
The number of subordinates in terms of organization is often referred to as the span of control. In simple terms it can be said a growing number of subordinates who have led more and more difficult to influence it. While the quality of the subordinate may include ability, motivation, maturity and expectations of subordinates to the leader.
4.       Negative Factors
Incentives in the form of financial fund and non-financial fund is considered an important factor in stimulating subordinates to work hard with high motivation. It is very realistic and relevant to the theory of a hierarchy of levels of need expressed by the needs in Maslow's physiological, security, social, pride and self-actualization.

III.                Leadership style
Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles. The three major styles of leadership are (U.S. Army Handbook, 1973):
  • Authoritarian or autocratic
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated.
Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power. This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around.” It has no place in a leader's repertoire.
The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style.
  • Participative or democratic
This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect.
This is normally used when you have part of the information, and your employees have other parts. Note that a leader is not expected to know everything — this is why you employ knowledgeable and skillful employees. Using this style is of mutual benefit — it allows them to become part of the team and allows you to make better decisions.
  • Delegative or Free Reign
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks.
This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely!
IV.                Leadership in Cooperative
Cooperative is a non-governmental organization (self-help organization) formed on the basis of solidarity, mutual aid with the principle of kinship with the aim of improving the welfare of its members. In carrying out cooperative member organizations and companies to delegate to the Board of Director to perform executive functions and Supervisors or Board of Supervisors to  exercises oversight.
In cooperative management, cooperative leadership can be classified into:
1.       Top manajemen
board of director as an executive who will run the organization of cooperatives and supervisors who will oversee the management in implementing policies that have been decided in a meeting of members.
2.       Midle management
manager appointed by the board with the approval of members to implement and run the cooperative enterprise.
3.       Lower Management
The head unit is a subordinate managers to perform these functions more operational and technical.
In this paper is meant to hone the top leadership of cooperatives and the Midle management. Cooperative leadership effectiveness can be measured by how far administrators and managers capable of directing his subordinates to be able to provide the best service (service exelent) to its members are known to have a dual identity as the owner and customers.
The following outline will be described the tasks and role of cooperatives board of director and managers who will clarify the role of leadership.
Table 1. Differences Manager And Board Of Director At Cooperation
board of director
Functional differences

Planning is routine and limited to the scope of duty
Insightful planning and reaching far into the future
Adjust the placement of staff to fill vacancies in the organizational structure
Discover and develop the professional talents in order to build institutions
Assign subordinates what to do
Explain what needs to be achieved
Control workers so they do what is assigned according to applicable regulations
Giving freedom to the followers to figure out how best to achieve the objectives in a responsible manner.
Managerial behavior

Working within the limits of the scope of their responsibilities and comply with applicable rules and regulations
More interested to meet the needs of larger companies and realize the social responsibility
More interested in doing a job well done in accordance with the ways that have been defined
Mutate attention on the correct execution of tasks, select what needs to be done and why it needs to be done
differences Interests

More attention to the internal side
Interested in raising support from their constituents and get resources.
More interested in things technical from business activities
More interested in aspects of socio-political and psychological
avoid conflict
Conflict is a natural thing.
Sell ​​products and services that are concrete
Sell ​​ideas, thoughts and feelings, and emotions are linked to concrete actions.
Long-term problem-solving with action plans
Build consensus on future vision and concrete actions to make it happen.
Differences in Effects Building

has a subordinate
have followers
Large power is determined by its position within the organization
Power formed from the leader's vision and ability to communicate that vision to his followers.
Looking for stability, certainty, and the ability to control
Looking for flexibility and change
Changes need to be avoided, managed or controlled
Changes are considered normal and need to be employed
Failures need to be avoided and prevented with a vengeance
Failure is a logical consequence of the effort to explore the unknown and could be a valuable experience
Differences in Mindset

Analytical and convergent
Intuitive and divergent
Make decisions and solve problems for them

Providing direction and freedom to his followers to make decisions and solve their own problems in a responsible
Emphasize the things that rational and concrete
Emphasize the things that are less concrete such as vision, insights, values ​​and motivation
Think and act for short-term
Think and act for the long term
Accept and adhere to strict organizational structure, policies, procedures, and methodologies applicable.
Always looking for ways better.

Judging from the scope of their duties, a leader in cooperative functioning as a cooperative enterprise to develop economic institutions, and on the other hand cooperative leaders also tasked to support the efforts of members efficiently through improved service cooperatives, in accordance with the objectives that have been decided and determined by the groups members co-operatives. In this case the leader has the dual role of cooperatives to cooperative companies and encourages its members to grow and develop the economy efficiently.

In accordance with the role and duties, cooperative leaders must know their potential, work situation and characteristics of cooperative organizations are facing. According to Ordway Tead there are 10 traits that must be present in a leader:

1) physical and mental energy
2) Awareness of purpose and direction,
3) Enthusiasm (passion, excitement, great joy)
4) Friendliness and love
5) Integrity
6) Technical Mastery
7) The firmness in making decisions
8) Intelligence
9) teaching skills, and
10) a good confidence

Can be added several features that differ according to GRTerry:
11) Stability of emotion
12) The skills to communicate

According to Stogdill:
13) Partici

A good leader uses all three styles, depending on what forces are involved between the followers, the leader, and the situation. Using an authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job. The leader is competent and a good coach. The employee is motivated to learn a new skill. The situation is a new environment for the employee. Using a participative style with a team of workers who know their job. The leader knows the problem, but does not have all the information. The employees know their jobs and want to become part of the team. Using a delegative style with a worker who knows more about the job than you. You cannot do everything and the employee needs to take ownership of her job! In addition, this allows you to be at other places, doing other things. Using all three: Telling your employees that a procedure is not working correctly and a new one must be established (authoritarian). Asking for their ideas and input on creating a new procedure (participative). Delegating tasks in order to implement the new procedure (delegative).

a.       Steers, at all (1985) Managing Efective Organization, and Introduction.Kent Publishing Company, A Division of Wadsworth, Inc. Boston, Massachusets
b.      Dearce II, at all (1989), Management. Mc.Graw-Hill International Editions, Management series.
c.       Richard L Daft,  at all (2005), The Leadership Experience. International Editions, canada
d.      Stepen P. Robbins, (2003), organizational behavior. 10th International Editions. prenctice hall. San diego

Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar